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INVERSION

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INVERSION

 

1. INVERSION AFTERNEGATIVE ADVERBIALS:

- Time expressions:

Never

Rarely

Seldom

Never in life

No longer

Never before

Hardly ever

+ inversion

Never have Iheard a weaker excuse! = I have never heard a weaker excuse!

Rarelycan a minister have been faced with such a problem.

Seldomdoes the team give a worse performance.

- Little:

Little (=Not) + inversion

Không

Littledoes the government appreciate what the results will be. = The government doesn’t appreciate what the results will be.

2. TIME EXPRESSIONS:

Hardly

Barely              +  had + S + PP

Scarcely

when/ before   + S + V (past simple)

No sooner        +  had + S + PP

than                  + S + V (past simple)

Ngay khi… thì…

Hardlyhad the train left the station when there was anexplosion.

Scarcelyhad I entered the room when the phone rang.

Nosooner had I reached the door than I realized it was locked.

3. AFTER ONLY:

Only by + noun/ V-ing + inversion

Only + adverb of time (Only then/ Only later) + inversion

Only when/ if + clause + inversion

Only in this way + inversion

Only after posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten toput a stamp.

Note: When only refers“the state of being the only one”, there is no inversion. (Khi từ Only chỉ “trạng thái của người/ vật duynhất” thì không đảo ngữ.)

Only + S + V

Only Mary realized that the door was not locked.

4. PHRASES CONTAINING NO/ NOT:

Under/ In no circumstances

(Dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không)

On no account (Không có lý do gì)

At no time (Không bao giờ)                                  + inversion

In no way (Không)

On no condition (Không)

No where (Không nơi nào/ Không nơi đâu)

No longer (Không còn nữa)

On nocondition are they to open firewithout a warning.

5. PHRASE NOT UNTIL:

Not until + phrase/ clause of time + inversion

Mãi cho đến khi…

Notuntil I got home did I notice that I had the wrong umbrella. = I didn’t notice that Ihad the wrong umbrella until I got home.

6. STRUCTURE NOT ONLY

Not only + inversion + but also + S (noun) + V

Not only + inversion + but + S (pronoun) + also + V

Not only + inversion + but + S + V + as well

Không những… mà còn

            Not only is he good atEnglish but he can also draw very well. = He is not only good at English but he can also drawvery well.

7. INVERSION AFTER SO/SUCH WITH THAT:

S+ V + so + adj/adv + that clause ¦ So + adj/ adv + inversion + that clause

 Sointeresting is the playthat the theatre is likely to be full every night. = The play is so interesting that the theatre islikely to be full every night.

So many booksdid he buy that he couldn't read them all. = He bought so many books that he couldn't read themall.

Sodevastating were the floods thatsome areas may never recover. = The floods were so devastating that someareas may never recover.

Such (= so much/ so great) + be + S (noun phrase) + that clause

Suchwas the force of the storm thattrees were uprooted. = The force of the storm was so much/ so great thattrees were uprooted.

8. INVERSION IN CONCESSION:

Although + S + V + adj/adv, main clause ¦ Adj/Adv + as/though + S + V, main clause

Difficultas/though it may seem/be, it isnot impossible. = Although it may seem/be difficult, it is not impossible.

9. INVERTED CONDITIONAL SENTENCES WITHOUT IF:

If + S + V(present), S + V(present)           ¦ Should + S (+ not) + bare inf., S + V(present)

                                S + will + bare inf.                                                           S + will + bare inf.

If + S + V(past subjunctive), S + would + bare inf. ¦ Were + S (+ not) …,         S + would + bare inf.

                                                                                     Were + S (+ not)  + to inf.,

If  + S + had + PP, S + would have + PP ¦ Had + S (+ not) + PP, S + would have + PP

Werethey to escape, they would be anoutcry. = If they were to escape, they would be an outcry.

Shouldhe have cheated, he will have tobe punished. = If he has cheated, he will have to be punished.

Had Iknown, I would have protestedstrongly. = If I had known, I would have protested strongly.

10. INVERT THESUBJECT AND VERB WITH COMPARISONS: We use inversion in comparisons whenthe subject compared is a noun phrase.

            My sister spends more hours in theoffice than John does. = My sister spends more hours in the office than does John.

             We were more prepared than the otherperformers were. = We were more prepared than were the other performers.

            Everyonelooks much happier today than they didyesterday.

11. ADVERBS OF PLACE/ PREPOSITIONS/ HERE/ THERE:

- Inversion with Adverbs ofplace/ Prepositions

Adv of place + V(tense) + S = S + V(tense) + adv of place

Prep

Up inthe air went the balloon. = Theballoon went up in the air.

Behindthe bamboo forest lies my house.= My house lies behind the bamboo forest.

- Inversion with here/ there.

Here/ There + be/ come/ go + S (noun)

Here/ There + S (pronoun) + be/ come/ go

Here comes the bus.                                  There Sally goes.

12. EMPHASIS:

- Cleft sentence

It + be + emphasized part (S, O, Adverb of time, Adverb of place, Clause) + that…

Chính… đã…

Note: If the emphasized part is a noun indicating a personand functioning as a subject, we can use:

It + be + S (person) + that/ who + V

Sue borrowedmy bike last night.

¦It was Sue who/ that borrowed my bike last night. = The person whoborrowed my bike last night last night was Sue.

¦It was my bike that Sue borrowed last night. = What Sue borrowed lastnight was my bike. =The thing which Sue borrowed last night was my bike.

¦It was last night that Sue borrowed my bike. = The time when Sue borrowedmy bike was last night.

- What- sentences: to emphasise part of the sentence or the wholesentence

What ... + be + emphasized part

I really lovehaving my family over for lunch. = What Ireally love is having my family over forlunch.

The policeinterviewed all the witnesses. = What thepolice did was (to) interview all the witnesses.

- all: to focus on a particular thing and nothing else

All ... + be + emphasized part

I want a newcoat for Christmas. = All I want forChristmas is a new coat.

 Itouched the bedside light and it broke. = AllI did was (to) touch the bedside lightand it broke.

13. WHATEVER/ HOWEVER/ NO MATTER WHAT/NO MATTER HOW:

Whatever/ No matter what + noun +

Cho dù … đi nữa

V               , main clause

S + V

Whatever/ No matter what +

Cho dù … đi nữa

V               , main clause

S + V

However/ No matter how + adj/ adv

Cho dù … thế nào đi nữa

S+ V, main clause

He can shouteven louder but I still won’t take any notice.

¦ Nomatter how much louder/ No matter how louder he can shout even, I still won’t take any notice.

¦Howevermuch louder/ However louder hecan shout even, I still won’t take any notice.

14. INVERSION AFTER AS.This is more common in formal or written language. (Đảo ngữ sử dụng sau as. Đảo ngữ này thường được dùng trongvăn viết trang trọng)

We were short of money, as were most people in our neighbourhood.

I thought, as did my colleagues, that the recession would soon be over.

15. INVERSION AFTER SO, NEITHER AND NOR. These are used in “echoing” statements, agreeing ordisagreeing. (Đảo ngữ sử dụng sau so,neither nor. Những từ này đượcsử dụng để lặp lại, đồng ý hoặc không đồng ý)

“I am going home.” – “So am I.”

“I don’t like meat.” – “Neither do I.”

EXERCISE

Exercise 1. Rewrite the followingsentences.

  1. I’ll find that man no matter how long it takes.

Ø However .........................................................................................................................................

  1. No matter how hard I tried I couldn’t open the door.

Ø However ........................................................................................................................................ .

  1. She never seems to succeed even though she studies much.

Ø Much ..............................................................................................................................................

  1. The police didn’t believe her until the body was found.

Ø Not until .........................................................................................................................................

  1. Rita doesn’t realize how serious her husband’s operation is going to be.

Ø Little ...............................................................................................................................................

  1. She is not only beautiful but also hard-working.

Ø Not only ..........................................................................................................................................

  1. My mother doesn’t do the washing by hand any more.

Ø No longer .......................................................................................................................................

  1. My father doesn’t smoke any more.

Ø No longer........................................................................................................................................     

  1. Mary’s voice is so great that all members of my family, even my strict grandmother, like her songs.

ØSuch................................................................................................................................................

  1. Although she finished her project successfully, her boss was still unsatisfied.

ØSuccessfully.....................................................................................................................................

Exercise 2. Rewrite the following sentencesas directed.

  1. Overeating caused his heart attack.

Ø It was ..............................................................................................................................................

Ø If .....................................................................................................................................................

Ø What ...............................................................................................................................................

  1. The workers only called off the strike after a new pay offer.

Ø If .....................................................................................................................................................

  1. I am amazed by the mistakes he makes.

Ø What ...............................................................................................................................................

  1. Unless she’s really hungry, she never eats snacks between meals.

Ø Only when ......................................................................................................................................

  1. Immediately after his arrival home a water-heater exploded.

Ø Hardly ............................................................................................................................................

  1. I don’t really like her even though I admire her achievements.

Ø Much ..............................................................................................................................................

  1. Alice and Charles did not decide to move to a bigger house until after the birth of their second child.

Ø Only when ......................................................................................................................................

  1. The last thing you should do is to phone the police.

Ø Under .............................................................................................................................................

  1. The only reason the party was a success was that a famous film star attended.

Ø Had ................................................................................................................................................

  1. The only way you can become a good athlete is to train hard everyday.

Ø Only by ...........................................................................................................................................

  1. The council rarely allows appeals against its decision.

Ø Hardly ever does ............................................................................................................................

Ø Hardly ever are ..............................................................................................................................

  1. I only need another $15.

Ø All I.................................................................................................................................................

  1. The journalists only heard about the changes to the wedding plans when they arrived at the venue.

Ø Not until ........................................................................................................................................ .

  1. Peter left the windows unlocked.

ØWhat ...............................................................................................................................................

  1. There are more people out of work in this country than ever before.

Ø Never ..............................................................................................................................................

Exercise 3.  Choose the correct answer:

1. ____________________________, you would have succeeded inyour business.

        A. If you listened to my advice                  B. Were you to listen to myadvice

        C. Had you listened to my advice               D. As long as you listened to myadvice

2.She doesn’t like classical music and _______________________________.

        A. I don’t, too             B. I don’t, either      C.neither do I             D. B and C arecorrect

3.Little ______________ what he has caused to others.

        A. does he know         B. he knows            C.he can know           D. he will know

4.__________ had he entered the office than he realized that he had left hiswallet at home.

        A. Hardly                    B. Scarcely              C.No sooner               D. Not only

5.____________ a week goes by without some road accidents.

        A. Hardly                    B. Seldom               C.Never                      D. Infrequently

6.I write to her almost every day.

             A. Not a daygoes by unless my writing to her.

             B. Hardly does a day go by withoutmy writing to her.

             C. No day go by without my writingto her.

             D. Almost every day goes by withoutmy writing for her.

7. The noisenext door didn’t stop until midnight.

             A. It was not until midnight thatthe noise next door stopped.

             B. Not until midnight did the noisenext door stopped.

             C. Only when midnight did the noisenext door stopped.

             D. Hardly did the noise next doorstopped when it was midnight.

8. Hestarted computer programming as soon as he left school.

             A. No sooner had he started computer programmingthan he left school.

             B. Hardly had he started computer programming when heleft school.

             C. No sooner had he left school than he started computerprogramming.

             D. After he left school, he hadstarted computer programming.

9. Hespent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.

             A. As soon as he borrowed somemoney from me, he spent it all.

             B. Hardly had he borrowed somemoney from me when he spent it all.

             C. Not only did he spent all hismoney but also he borrowed some from me.

             D. Not only did he spend all hismoney but he borrowed some from me as well.

10.She only felt relaxed after a few monthsworking for him.

             A. She used to feel relaxed workingfor him a few months.

             B. A few months ago, she didn’tfind it relaxed working for him.

             C. Only after a few months working forhim did she feel relaxed.

             D. It was not until a few monthsworking for him did she feel relaxed.

11. Right afterhis appointment to the post, he fell ill.

             A. No sooner didhe appointed to the post than he fell ill.

             B. No sooner had he appointed to thepost than he fell ill.

             C. Hardly had he appointed to thepost when he fell ill.

             D. Hardly had he been appointed tothe post when he fell ill.

12. Just after solving one problem, I was facedwith another.

            A. Scarcely had I solved one problem when Iwas faced with another.                    

            B.Hardly had I solved one problem when I was faced with another.                     

            C. No sooner had I solved oneproblem than I was faced with another.                              

            D. All are correct.

13. A country cannot be prosperousif it is not quite independent.

             A. Unless a country is quite independent, it can beprosperous.

             B. Without complete independence, a country can beprosperous.

             C. Only when a country is quite independent can it beprosperous.

             D. It is not until a country is quite independent can itbe prosperous.

14. I onlyrecognized him when he came into the light.

            A. Only when I recognized him, hecame into the light.

             B. It wasn’t until he came into thelight that I recognized him

            C. Not until he came into the lightI did recognize him

            D. I did not recognize him even whenhe came into the light.

15. We couldn’t relax untilall the guests had left.    

             A.Not until all the guests had left could we relax. 

             B.It wasn’t until all the guests had left that we could relax.

             C. It wasn’t until all the guests had left could werelax.  

             D.A and B are correct

16. The phone stoppedringing the moment I got downstairs.      

           A. No sooner had the phone stoppedringing than I got downstairs.

             B. After the phone had stoppedringing, I got downstairs.

             C. Hardly had the phone stoppedringing when I got downstairs.

             D. No sooner had I got downstairsthan the phone stopped ringing.

17.The light failed the moment they began work.

             A.But for the light failed, they would have begun work.

             B. Hardly did they begin work whenthe light failed.

             C. Hardly had they begun work whenthe light failed.

             D.As soon as the light failed, they began work.

18. She didn’tshed a tear as the play ended in tragedy.

         A. The tragedy play wasn’t good for herto shed tear.     

         B. Without her tear, the play didn’tend tragically.     

         C.So tragic was the play that she didn’t shed a tear. 

         D. Not a tear did she shed when theplay ended in tragedy.

19. It was notuntil she had arrived home ___________________ her appointment with the doctor.

          A. when she remembered                               B. that sheremembered

          C. and she remembered                                   D. did sheremember

20. Canada doesnot require that U.S citizens obtain passports to enter the country, and_________.

          A. Mexico doesn’t, too                                   B. so doesMexico

          C. Mexico doesn’t, either                               D. neither isMexico

21.____________________, he would have been able to pass the exam.

          A. If he studied harder last year                      B. Provided he studiedhard last year

          C. Studying harder last year                           D. Had he studiedharder last year

22.___________________ will Mr. Dennis be able to regain control of the company.

          A. With hard work                                          B.Despite his hard work

          C. Only if he works hardly                             D. Only by workinghard

23. __________ hadI arrived home than it began to rain.

          A. No sooner     B. Hardly                              C.Scarcely      D. Rarely          

24.My father paid my fees. _______________that, I wouldn’t be here now.

          A. Ifthere  were not         B. But for       C. Had it not been for                       D. B and C are correct

25. Only afterfood has been dried or canned ________________________________.

          A. it should be stored for future use.              B. that it should be stored forfuture use.

          C. should it be stored for future use.               D.should it store for future use.

THE END

KEY

I.

1. However long it takes, I’llfind that man.

      2.However hard I tried I couldn’t open the door.

3. Much as/ though she studies,she never seems to succeed.

4. Not until the body was founddid the police believe her.

5. Little does Rita realize howserious her husband’s operation is going to be.

6. Not only is she beautifulbut she also is hard-working.

7. No longer does my mother dothe washing by hand.

8. No longer does my fathersmoke.

9. Such is Mary’s voice thatthat all members of my family, even my strict grandmother, like her songs.

10. Successfully as/ though shefinished her project, her boss was still unsatisfied.

II.

1. It was overeating thatcaused his heart attack.

If he hadn’t overeaten, he wouldn’thave suffered a heart attack.

What caused his heart attackwas overeating.

2. If a new pay hadn’t offered,the workers wouldn’t have called off the strike.

3. What amazes me is themistakes he makes.

4. Only when she’s reallyhungry does she eat snacks between meals.

5. Hardly had he arrived homewhen a water-heater exploded.

6. Much as/ though I admire herachievements, I don’t really like her. (Mục 8)

7. Only when their second childwas born did Alice and Charles decide to move to a bigger house.

8. Under any circumstancesshould you phone the police.

9. Had a famous film star notattended, the party wouldn’t have been successful.

10. Only by training hardeveryday can you become a good athlete.

11. Hardly ever does thecouncil allow appeals against its decision.

Hardly ever are appeals againstthe council’s decision allowed.

12. All I need is another $15.

13. Not until the journalists arrived atthe venue did they hear about the changes to the wedding plans.

14. What Peter did was leaving the windowsunlocked.

15. Never before have there been morepeople out of work in this country.

III.

1. C, 2. D, 3. A, 4. C, 5. D, 6. B, 7. A, 8.C, 9. D, 10. C, 11. D, 12. D, 13. C, 14. B, 15. D, 16. D, 17. C, 18. D, 19. B,20. C, 21. D, 22. D, 23. A, 24. D, 25. C

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